Adult Constipation

Constipation is a decrease in the frequency of a person’s bowel movements, a change in the consistency of stools (resulting in small, hard stools), or a difficulty in a person’s ability to pass stools. Constipation is fairly common complaint in older adults, and most people will experience constipation at some point. In many cases it is related to a person’s diet or daily routines, but constipation may also be a sign of a more serious disorder.

Cirrhosis of the Liver

This condition is a gradual and progressive destruction of tissue in the liver. Over time, healthy tissue is replaced by scar tissue. This results in a loss of liver function.

Colorectal Cancer

This condition is the formation of cancerous growths in the colon (called colon cancer) and in the rectum (called rectal cancer). These growths may be benign or malignant.


This condition is a buildup of small, pebble-like deposits in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small, non-vital organ located just below the liver. The gallbladder stores bile, which is produced in the liver, until the body needs it. The gallbladder then pushes the bile into the small intestine, where it aids in the digestion of fats.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

This condition is a chronic digestive disease that results in a painful irritation in the esophagus. It occurs when food or liquid escapes the stomach and pushes upward into the esophagus.


This condition is an inflammation and swelling of the veins of the anus or rectum. Hemorrhoids may occur inside or outside the anus.

Hepatitis C (HCV)

This infectious disease, which primarily affects the liver, typically progresses slowly but can be life-threatening. Most people who are infected with the hepatitis C virus do not know that they are infected, and may show no symptoms for decades.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

This condition describes disorders that can cause the intestines to become irritated and swollen. Inflammatory bowel disease typically refers to one of two diseases: Ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease.



This procedure is used to examine the large intestine for inflammation, ulcers, or abnormal growths such as cancer. The physician uses a colonoscope – a small, lighted camera inside a soft, flexible tube. The procedure usually lasts from 30 minutes to an hour.

EGD (Upper Endoscopy)

This procedure is used to examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum for inflammation, ulcers, or growths. It can rule out disorders such as acid reflux or hiatal hernia. The physician uses a small camera, called an endoscope, which is inserted into the mouth and guided down the throat. The examination usually lasts from 5 to 20 minutes.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP)

This procedure is used to examine the duodenum, bile ducts, gallbladder and pancreatic duct. The physician uses a small camera, called an endoscope, which is guided down the throat. The procedure usually lasts from 30 minutes to an hour.

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